2. Introduction to the Arduino
Common Arduino boards, problems and opportunities
A year later, Massimo Banzi and David Mellis forked (a programming term that describes a copy of an original work) Wiring, and created the Arduino. The created the first Arduino prototype, pictured below:
And shortly after, the second prototype:
The second Arduino prototype is what we recognise today as the Arduino Uno, with several improvements as a faster microcontroller and better positioning of components, like the reset button.
Fast forward to 2019
Fast-forward to today, and in 2019 there are around 15 active and many more retired official Arduinos.
Because Arduino is open source hardware, there are many more Arduino compatible boards, made by countless manufacturers. You can make your own, if you wish.
With so many Arduino boards out there, this is a topic that often confuses beginners.
In the remainder of this email, I’d like to help clear the confusion.
As I mentioned already, there are dozens of boards designed by Arduino and various manufacturers. Some, but not all of these manufacturers, design their boards with care and attention to the official specifications to ensure that the boards they produce are fully compatible with the official Arduino boards.
The boards produced by these manufacturers are often labeled “100% compatible”. They are not official Arduinos (that means, they are not made by Arduino, the company), but they work exactly like an official Arduino.
There are also boards that are not fully Arduino compatible because their designer decided to make hardware changes that affect the way such board works. These boards are often called “clones”, and are usually much cheaper than an official Arduino. A common example are such boards that replace the USB components of the official board with a cheaper version. To use such Arduino on your computer requires you to install additional USB drivers, making this a bad choice for beginners. The design of these boards is driven by price, so cheaper components are used all around. Cheaper headers (where you connect the jumper wires), cheaper USB connectors, cheaper passive components (like capacitors and the voltage regulator). These Arduino clones cost a fraction of the cost of an official Arduino.
It is worth investing in official Arduino boards even if they are slightly more expensive because they will work better so that you will not have to spend hours figuring out problems with the board instead of building your gadget.
If you are a beginner in Arduino and electronics, I recommend getting the Arduino Uno R3; this is the classic Arduino board. It is hard to destroy by miswiring (I have tried!), has tons of high-quality documentation, example sketches, and libraries while still surprisingly capable. It is relatively easy to expand as your projects grow.
Arduino Pro Mini
If you are looking to build a project that requires small size, you can go for one of the small footprint Arduinos, like the Pro Mini or the Micro (designed by Sparkfun). These boards contain the bare-essential hardware. The Pro Mini is a personal favourite. You can find it on eBay for around $5 (a bit more than the price of a single ATmega328P microcontroller), and it contains all of the functionality of the Uno except for the USB. It fits in the smallest project box, and I often attach it to custom-designed motherboards.
The two example boards, the Uno and the Pro Mini, share the same basic architecture, and are powered by the same microcontroller. This means that your circuits and sketches work the same way on these boards.
There are also Arduinos based on more capable microcontrollers, like the Mega, or even microprocessors running Linux, like the Arduino Yún rev 2.
The Arduino Mega 2560 is a super sized Arduino Uno with a faster microcontroller (the ATmega2560) and many more input/output pins. This board is perfect for projects with a lot of buttons, motors, sensors, and, really, a lot of everything.
The Arduino Yún rev 2, is essentially a computer combined with an Arduino. It runs a version of Linux, has built-in Wifi capability and is made for Internet of Things applications.
Arduino Gemma and LilyPad
Worth mentioning are also the various wearable Arduinos. If you are interested in making electronics that you can embed in clothing, then you can look at something like the super-tiny Arduinos Gemma or LilyPad (designed and sold by Adafruit). These are small, battery-ready, low power Arduinos, and circular so that they don’t catch onto fabrics.
So, which Arduino do I recommend for someone starting now?
Arduino is open source, that means that its specifications are published so that anyone can create their own compatible and custom design.
It is easy to get lost in this variety of alternatives, but my advice is to start with the classic Arduino Uno.
In tomorrow’s lesson, you will learn about the important hardware features of the Arduino Uno, and the kinds of hardware that you can connect to it.